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The Forgery Made by the Government

While browsing the gallery of the banknotes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, one could notice that one series design is repeated three times, namely P-10 to P-17, P-39 to P-46 and P-47 to P-47C, although in different sizes. In turbulent times, as was the case in Bosnia in the 1990s, it is nothing unusual and there are many other such cases in the galleries for other countries. So then, What makes this case special?

Front of Bosnia and Herzegovina banknote, 1000 Dinara, pick 47C from the year 1995

The first and the second were issues were regular Bosnian and Herzegovinian dinar series, issued by the National Bank of Bosnia and Herzegovina (NBBH) in 1992 and 1994 respectively, but the third one is undated, never circulated and described in the Standard Catalog of World Paper Money as produced in 1995 and printed by "Thomas de la Rue" in London. The exact story of this series may never be completely revealed, since the National Bank does not exist any more (it was replaced by the Central Bank in 1998) and "Thomas de la Rue" does not issue statements without the approval of the ordering bank. The persons that were included in the process remain silent - since any information they might bring forward could cause the emergence of some unpleasant questions for them.

This text is based on two articles, the first by Amer Sulejmanagic "Bosnian and Herzegovinian Banknotes Printed in England" pages 9-13, and the second by Jusuf Mulic and entitled "London Issue of Bosnian-Herzegovinian Dinar From 1992", pages 14-19, both published in Bosnian in "Novi Numizmaticar", Nr. 3, Sarajevo, 2004, with some factual correction and synchronization. Here we list what is known:

On the banknotes there is the the assumed signature of "Stiepo Andrijic", the governor of the NBBH between 25.5.1992 and 10.10.1993. However, the signature of the last series is not truly the signature of Mr. Andrijic, as his actual signature can be seen on Bosnia and Herzegovina banknotes P-10 to P-15. Therefore, it appears as though someone had to forge his signature, and to approve such an act to the printer.

The governor of the NBBH prior to Mr. Andrijic was Ms. Hajra Balorda, who was politically not in line with the government of the Republic, one that had declared its independence from Yugoslavia after the public vote on 29.2. and 1.3.1992. Therefore the Government or the Ministry of Finances could have started the preparation for their own currency even then, negotiating with Thomas de la Rue and Cetis Security Print Celje (Slovenia), the printers that had printed P-10 to P-15, while keeping the Governor completely out of the loop.

The third series has actually three developmental sub-variants not listed in the Standard Catalog of World Paper Money, with the first being signed by Jure Pelivan as the "governor". Mr. Pelivan was the prime minister of Bosnia from 20.12.1990 to 9.11.1992. He claimed he knew of the printing, but that he did not have anything to do with this but that he knew of an unnamed Bosnian diplomat serving in 1992 in Turkey who had obtained money for the printing from some incognito donor.

Some amount of 50 and 1000 dinar notes with numeration arrived to Bosnia in 1995, but these were withdrawn to the Treasury and destroyed. The third series was printed in the same quantity as the first series, but the NBBH was not willing to take receipt of the rest the banknotes in 1996 or 1997 on call of the Printer, with the exception of some examples for the NBBH collection. The rest of the banknotes were said to have been be destroyed.

Therefore this issue has to be observed simultaneously as an official issue and as a forgery - where the forger was the government itself, which is quite a rare case.

Mr. Mulic asked two possibly unpleasant questions:

  • 1. Who approved the forging of the signature?
  • 2. Who expropriated the notes that today could be bought on the notafilic market?

Further questions that could naturally follow:

  • 3. Who approved the transfer of (assumed) 2.5 million German marks to pay for the printing and from which source?
  • 4. Why there were two simultaneous orders to print the banknotes, with the same design done by Bosnian painter Dzevad Hozo?

There can be several related question along these lines.

There are no known numerated examples of the 500 dinar note (P-47B, only printers proof banknotes), while the numerated 100 dinar (P-47A) is very rare, as are its proofs. There are a lot of 50s (P-47) on the market, while the 1000 (P-47C) got expensive as of late. In my opinion some dealers stocked them and sell them slowly over time to manipulate the market and keep prices high.

More Information About akaardvark387
By akaardvark387 on 2015-11-21

Monarchs of Poland: Portraits of the 1994 Banknote Series

The Polish National Bank (Narodowy Bank Polski) created a series of five banknotes for its 1994 paper money series. Though not a fantastically attractive series, this set does have a certain appeal based on coloration and consistency of design, which is based on Polish rulers. This series features five monarchs of Poland on the 10, 20, 50, 100, and 200 Zloty notes (Zloty means "Gold", as in "Gold Ones" in Polish). The following is a brief description and history of the five Dukes and Kings.

Poland Pick 173a: 10 Zlotych

Mieszko I of Poland was the first Christian ruler of Poland, and is considered the de facto creator of the Polish state. According to existing sources, Mieszko I was a wise politician, a talented military leader, and a charismatic ruler. He successfully used diplomacy, concluding alliances, first with Bohemia, then Sweden, and the Holy Roman Empire. In foreign policy, he placed the interests of his country foremost, even entering into agreements with his former enemies. On his death, he left to his sons a country with greatly expanded territories, and a well-established position in Europe. He ruled from approximately 960 to 992.

Poland Pick 174a: 20 Zlotych

Boleslaw I the Brave (aka Boleslaw I the Great) was Duke of Poland from 992 to 1025, and the first King of Poland in 1025. Boleslaw I was a remarkable politician, strategist, and statesman. He not only turned Poland into a country comparable to older western monarchies, but he raised it to the front rank of European states. Boleslaw conducted successful military campaigns in the west, south and east. He consolidated Polish lands and conquered territories outside the borders of modern day Poland, including Slovakia, Moravia, Red Ruthenia, Meissen, Lusatia, and Bohemia. He was a powerful mediator in Central European affairs. Finally, at the culmination of his reign in 1025, he had himself crowned King of Poland. As a side note, in one of his expeditions, Boleslaw I captured Kiev, where he installed his son-in-law Sviatopolk I as ruler. According to legend, Boleslaw chipped his sword when striking Kiev's Golden Gate. Later, in honour of this legend, a sword called Szczerbiec ("Chipped Sword") would become the coronation sword of Polands kings.

Poland Pick 175a: 50 Zlotych

Casimir III the Great reigned as the King of Poland from 1333 to 1370. Casimir inherited a kingdom weakened by war and made it prosperous and wealthy. He reformed the Polish army and doubled the size of the kingdom through conquest. He reformed the judicial system and introduced a legal code, gaining the title "the Polish Justinian". He introduced the codes of law of Greater and Lesser Poland as an attempt to end the overwhelming superiority of the nobility. During his reign all three major classes --the nobility, priesthood, and bourgeoisie -- were more or less counterbalanced, allowing Casimir to strengthen his monarchic position. He was known for siding with the weak when the law did not protect them from greedy nobles and clergymen. Casimir built extensively and founded the University of Krakow, the oldest Polish university. He also confirmed privileges and protections previously granted to Jews and encouraged them to settle in Poland in great numbers.

Poland Pick 176a: 100 Zlotych

Wladyslaw II Jagiello was Grand Duke of Lithuania (1377-1434) and King of Poland (1386-1399). Born a pagan, in 1386 he converted to Catholicism and was baptized as Wladyslaw in Krakow, married the young Queen Jadwiga, and was crowned King of Poland as Wladyslaw II Jagiello. In the year 1387 he converted Lithuania to Christianity. His own reign in Poland started in 1399, upon the death of Queen Jadwiga, and lasted a further thirty-five years. It laid the foundation for the centuries-long Polish-Lithuanian union. During his reign, the Polish-Lithuanian state was the largest state in the Christian world. After he became King of Poland the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410 secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish-Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Wladyslaw II Jagiello extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Polands Golden Age.

Poland Pick 177a: 200 Zlotych

Sigismund I the Old reigned as King of Poland and also as the Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1506 until 1548. A successful monarch and a great patron of arts, he established Polish suzerainty over East Prussia and incorporated the duchy of Mazovia into the Polish state, securing the nations wealth, culture and power. In 1521 Sigismunds army, led by one of the principal advisers and commanders, Jan Tarnowski, subdued the Order of the Teutonic Knights, a paramilitary religious order that ruled East Prussia.

Though there were many others, this complement of rulers spans nearly a six hundred year period and represents much of the progress in Poland during that epoch -- hence the selection on this latest issue of Polish paper money.

Much of this information was collected from and provided by Wikipedia. Kudos!

More Information About Proteus
By Proteus on 2015-10-26

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